Unlike the static, classically composed//沉着的;冷静的 portraits //肖像produced by her mentor //导师Walker Evans,
twentieth-century New York photographer Helen Levitt’s photographs seem candid偷拍的；公正的 and
Whereas Evans’ subjects look directly into the camera, so that photographer
and subject conspire in the making of a portrait//肖像, Levitt’s subjects seem caught unawares. As
a “street” photographer, before the term’s invention, Levitt has claimed to have attempted to
capture life as she found it.
But there is a paradox to her technique.
Her off-the-cuff//未准备的 aesthetic seemingly guarantees objectivity, since she was recording street scenes she happened
upon, yet her photographs could be said to be highly subjective, to be reflections of Levitt’s
own distinctive preoccupations//当务之急 and ways of seeing.
Unlike Evans’ images, Levitt’s are solely the products of the photographer without the conscious participation of their subjects.
The repetitions evident//明显的 in Levitt’s choices of subjects, for example, her many photographs of children in masks and disguises, reveal more about Levitt herself than about those subjects.
Many cultural anthropologists have come to
the scientific framework of empiricism that dominated//控制 the field until the 1970s and now regard all scientific knowledge as socially constructed.
They argue that information about cultures during the empiricist era typically came from anthropologists who brought with them a prepackaged//包装 set of conscious and unconscious biases.
Cultural anthropology, according to the post-1970s critique, is unavoidably subjective, and
the anthropologist should be explicit in acknowledging that fact.
Anthropology should stop striving to build a better database about cultural behavior and should
turn to developing a more humanistic interpretation of cultures.
The new framework holds that it may be more enlightening to investigate the biases of earlier texts than
to continue with empirical methodologies.
Before feminist//女权主义者 literary criticism emerged in the 1970s, the nineteenth-century United
States writer Fanny Fern was regarded by most critics (when considered at all) as a
prototype//原型 of weepy//要哭的 sentimentalism//感情主义—a pious虔诚 , insipid//平淡的 icon of conventional American
Feminist reclamations of Fern, by contrast, emphasize her nonsentimental多愁善感的 qualities, particularly her sharply humorous social criticism.
Most feminist scholars find it difficult to reconcile//调停 Fern’s sardonic讥讽的 social critiques with her effusive//流露的 celebrations of many conventional values.
Attempting to resolve this contradiction, Harris concludes that Fern employed flowery rhetoric//华丽的辞藻 strategically to disguise her subversive//颠覆性的 goals beneath apparent conventionality习俗.
However, Tompkins proposes an alternative view of sentimentality itself, suggesting that sentimental writing could serve radical, rather than only conservative ends by swaying//摇摆 readers emotionally, moving them to embrace
Our study revealed that nest‐guarding long tailed skinks (a species of lizard) homed
(returned to their nests) more successfully when displaced shorter distances.
There are two
reasons why homing success rates decreased with increasing displacement distance.
One possibility is that females were simply displaced too far to find their way home.
However, this is unlikely given that some individuals managed to find their way home from each distance we
The second possibility deals with trade‐offs between the risks associated with making a
long return trip and the benefits of returning.
Animals should expend energy only when the
associated costs are low.
As reptiles爬行动物 increase the time spent moving, their daily energy
expenditure支出 increases dramatically. The energetic costs of returning home and the chances
that the eggs will have been preyed//折磨 upon during the return trip both increase substantially as
displacement//取代 distance increases. For example, the 130 hours (5.5 days) that female skinks
spent returning from a distance of 300 meters is sufficient for an egg-eating snake to locate
and prey upon the entire clutch.
However, females with larger clutches were more likely to home at distances over 50 meters. For these females, the relative fitness benefits associated with having more eggs successfully hatch may outweigh the energetic costs of returning to a nest site, even if the nest may have already been preyed upon.